A new go module codetrie was added, this module contains functions that allows to create contract objects, and the corresponding trees for each contract.

ContractBag (Type)

path: codetrie/contract.go.

A ContractBag contains a contracts map where the key is a Hash (the contract code hash) and the value is a Contract object pointer.

type ContractBag struct {
	contracts map[common.Hash]*Contract

Contract (Type)

path: codetrie/contract.go.

A contract object contains code, and a list of chunks that were touched during the execution of the contract. When a chunk is touched, the value of the element with key index will be set to true.

type Contract struct {
	code          []byte
	touchedChunks map[int]bool

CMStats (type)

path: codetrie/contract.go

type CMStats struct {
	NumContracts int
	ProofSize    int
	CodeSize     int
	ProofStats   *ssz.ProofStats
	RLPStats     *ssz.RLPStats

Chunk (Type)

path: codetrie/codetrie.go.

A chunk object containes two fields:

  • fio: is the first instrucction offset in the chunk.
  • code: the bytecode in the chunk, it can be up to 32 bytes.
type Chunk struct {
	fio  uint8 // firstInstructionOffset
	code []byte

RLPStats (type)

type RLPStats struct {
	RLPSize    int
	UnRLPSize  int
	SnappySize int


path: codetrie/contract.go

Returns a new empty ContractBag object.

func NewContractBag() *ContractBag {
	return &ContractBag{
		contracts: make(map[common.Hash]*Contract),

Stats (ContractBag Method)

path: codetrie/contract.go

For each contract in the ContractBag, gets the code size, Proves the contract, obtaining a Multiproof and a Compressed Multiproof.

Stats for the Multiproofs, CompressedMultiproofs, and for the RLP encoded proof are collected in the main Stats object.

func (b *ContractBag) Stats() (*CMStats, error) {
	stats := NewCMStats()
	stats.NumContracts = len(b.contracts)
	for _, c := range b.contracts {
		stats.CodeSize += c.CodeSize()
		rawProof, err := c.Prove()
		if err != nil {
			return nil, err
		p := ssz.NewMultiproof(rawProof)
		cp := ssz.NewCompressedMultiproof(rawProof.Compress())

		ps := cp.ProofStats()

		rs, err := ssz.NewRLPStats(p, cp)
		if err != nil {
			return nil, err
	stats.ProofSize = stats.ProofStats.Sum()
	return stats, nil

Get (ContractBag Method)

path: codetrie/contract.go

Checks if contract is already in the contracts bag. To do that checks if the hash for the input code already exists in the contracts map. If it exists it will return the pointer to the Contract corresponding to that code hash.

If the contract was not previously added to the contract bag it will create a new contract corresponding to the provided bytecode.

CodeSize (Contract Method)

path: codetrie/contract.go

Returns the current contracts code size.

Prove (Contract Method)

path: codetrie/contract.go

Creates a new SSZ tree using the contracts code and specifying the chunk size of 32.

Create new array of metadata indices, it is initialized with the indexes 7, 8, 9, and 10.

mdIndices := []int{7, 8, 9, 10}
=> [7, 8, 9, 10]

Another array is created containing the touched chunks, each one of this chunks obtains an index which will correspond to the place they belong in the tree.

Creates a Multiproof based on the array of metadata indices and chunk indices.

The multiproof is compressed and returned.

This Multiproof will have the following Tree structure:

         / \
        /   \
       /     \
      /       \
     /         \
    2           3
   / \        /   \ 
  4   5      6     7
 / \ / \    / \  
8  9 10 11 ... ... 

  • 6 - Root of the tree of depth 10 (Contains the touched chunks)
  • 7 - Number of chunks
  • 8 - Version
  • 9 - CodeHash
  • 10 - Code length
  • 11 - Empty field


path: codetrie/contract.go

Returns a Contract object containing the code and an empty map of touchedChunks.

TouchPC (Contract Method)

path: codetrie/contract.go

Calculates the corresponding chunk number for the pc (chunk_number = pc / 32).

Adds the chunk as touched by creating an element (if not exists) in the touchedChunks map, where the key is the chunk number and the value is true.

TouchRange (Contract Method)

path: codetrie/contract.go

Calculate the chunks for the given range of opcodes and marks them as touched.


path: codetrie/codetrie.go

It gets a new CodeTrie. Then calls the fastssz generated code to get the SSZ Tree which will get returned.


path: codetrie/codetrie.go

Chunkifys the provided code, if the requested chunk size is different than 32, an error MerkleizeSSZ only supports chunk size of 32 occurs.

Calculates the First Instruction Offsets (FIO) for each one of the chunks

Creates the metadata, which consists in version (0), the code hash and code length.

Returns a new CodeTrie containing the metadataand chunks.


path: codetrie/codetrie.go

Calculates the total number of chunks are required for the given bytecode.

Splits the code into 32 bits chunks and also finds the first instruction offset (FIO), this is to consider that the initical bytes might be part of a previous PUSH* input and to not consider those as opcodes.


Loops the bytecode contained in the chunk's, when a PUSH* opcode is found, it will calculate if the input data for PUSH* is exceeding the current chunk, if that's the case it will calculate which offset is the Firs Instruction in the next chunk (avoid considering PUSH* data as instructions).


path: codetrie/ssz/proof.go

Serializes the CompressedMultiproof as RLP and gets the RLP size (RLPSize).

Serializes the uncompressed Multiproof as RLP and gets the RLP size (UnRLPSize).

The uncompressed Multiproof's RLP is compresssed using Snappy compression (SnappySize).

The RLPStats object is returned containing the previous fields RLPSize, UnRLPSize, and SnappySize.